Chronology of Mankind: 6,000 Years of History, Pt III :: By Randy Nettles

Authors note: Most of the historical content and dates in this article were gathered from these sources:,,,, and When and Where in the Bible and Throughout History by E. Michael and Sharon Rusten.

Nettles Chronology thus far – Epochs 1-12 (3960 BC to AD 312) = 4,272 years

Epoch 13: The Christian Roman Empire Era – AD 312 to AD 590 = 278 Years

Constantine defeated Maxentius in battle on October 26, AD 312. Year 4272 from creation – AD 312. Legend has it that on the night before the battle, Constantine saw a flaming cross in the sky with the words, “In this Sign Conquer.” The story continues in which, later that night, in a dream, Christ commanded Constantine to have his soldiers mark their shields with the first two letters of the word Christ in Greek. Constantine obeyed and won a decisive battle the next day, as his troops were vastly outnumbered. Constantine entered Rome as the undisputed emperor of the western empire according to Eusebius, a church historian who lived during this time.

Constantine, the emperor of the western empire, and Licinius, the emperor of the eastern empire, issued the Edict of Milan in January of AD 313. Year 4273 from creation – AD 313. This edict granted everyone, including Christians, the right to worship as they pleased. It also awarded compensation and return of confiscated church property. Constantine became the first Christian Roman emperor, and it is believed he was baptized by Eusebius of Nicomedia.

Constantine defeats Licinius in battle and becomes sole emperor of Rome. Year 4283 from creation – AD 323

Emperor Constantine calls the Council of Nicea in Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey), where the Nicene Creed is written. Year 4285 from creation – AD 325. The council was called because of a dispute between Arius, a pastor from Alexandria, Egypt, and Alexander, the bishop of Alexandria. Arius believed Jesus was divine but not God. Alexander believed Jesus was divine and God. More than 300 bishops sided with Alexander, and only a few sided with Arius. The document was signed by the 300 bishops, and the others were exiled.

Constantine dedicates the city of Byzantium in modern-day Turkey as the “New Rome” and renames it Constantinople, meaning “city of Constantine” (now Istanbul). Year 4290 from creation – AD 330. Even though Constantinople was created as a city of the Roman Empire, it eventually emerged as the beginning of the Byzantine Empire after the fall of western Rome. A later division emerged between the Roman Catholic Church (west) and Eastern Orthodoxy.

Julian the Apostate, nephew to Constantine, took the throne of the Roman Empire in AD 355 after Constantine’s son, Constantius, died. Julian re-established worship to the Greek gods, restricted Christians in society, and taxed them heavily. He was the last of the pagan emperors of Rome and died in AD 367.

Aurelius Augustine converts to Christianity – Year 4346 from creation – AD 386 – Augustine was one of history’s most prolific Christian thinkers.

Jerome translates the Old and New Testaments into Latin, now known as the Vulgate – Year 4365 from creation -AD 405

The Visigoths, a Germanic tribe, capture and loot Rome – Year 4370 from creation – AD 410. Atilla the Hun (a Mongolian tribe) invades France in AD 451 and then Italy in AD 452.

The Western Roman Empire falls to the Germanic chief Odoacer who proclaims himself to be king – Year 4436 from creation – AD 476. The center of world power had now shifted from Rome to Constantinople. In Rome, the power of the church (Roman Catholic) was emerging above the power of the state.

In Ad 525, a monk named Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor introduced the A.D./Anno Domini (Latin for in the year of our Lord) system for reckoning of years, counting the years since the birth of Christ. He set the date at A.D. 1 but was off by about 5 years, as Jesus’ birth was in 5 BC (according to my calculations). The addition of the B.C. (Before Christ) component came two centuries after Dionysius, by the Venerable Bede of Northumbria in AD 731 – Year 4485 from creation – AD 525. For more information, see my article at:

Gregory the Great is elected Pope in AD 590. He was the fourth and final of the traditional Latin fathers of the Church of Rome. Gregory I was the first pope who reflected a truly medieval and sacramental spirituality. He assumed many duties that were normally administered by civil authorities. This was an important implementation toward the forming of the Papal States. Gregory believed that God had entrusted the pope with caring for the entire church and had universal control over it. Year 4550 from creation – AD 590

4272 years (Epochs 1-12) + 278 years (Epoch 13) = 4,550 years

Epoch 14: The Christian (Roman Catholic Church) Middle Ages – AD 590 to AD 1517 = 927 years

Gregory, a Roman, is elected pope in AD 590 and strengthens the power of the Holy Roman Church. Gregory I had a significant role in organizing and codifying Roman liturgy and music. The Gregorian chant is named after him. He died in AD 604.

Persia conquered Jerusalem, which was controlled by the Byzantine Empire, in AD 614. – Year 4574 from creation – AD 614. In AD 629, the Romans reconquered Jerusalem and restored the land of Palestine to Byzantine control.

Muhammed invented a new religion called Islam in approximately AD 610. He had to flee to Medina in AD 622, but after converting many new converts, he returned to Mecca and conquered it in AD 630. Year 4590 from creation – AD 630. He died two years later in AD 632.

The Muslims defeat the Byzantine army and take control of Palestine. Sophronius, the patriarch of Jerusalem, surrenders to the Caliph, Omar of Medina, in AD 637. Year 4597 from creation – AD 637. The Dome of the Rock is completed in AD 691. In AD 711, the Muslims invade Spain and defeat the Visigoths who controlled Spain. By AD 718, the Muslims controlled much of Spain.

In AD 732, the Muslims controlled a large territory of the known world, from Spain to North Africa, Palestine, Syria, Persia, and were threatening Constantinople and France. The Battle of Tours, Gaul (modern-day France) took place in AD 732. Year 4692 from creation – AD 732. Charles Martel (the hammer), a Frank (German tribe who controlled Gaul), was the military leader of the Franks. He pushed the Muslims back to Spain. Martel and the Franks preserved Western civilization from becoming Islamic.

Charlemagne, a Frank, became ruler of France in AD 768. Charlemagne, a warrior king, then conquered Germany and Italy and fought his way throughout central Europe and northern Spain. Because of Charlemagne’s efforts in religious, political, economic, and intellectual contributions and his military conquests that greatly influenced Western culture, he is considered to be the founder of Europe. Year 4728 from creation – AD 768.

Charlemagne is crowned Roman emperor by Leo III in AD 800. He was the first emperor of what would later be called the “Holy Roman Empire.” Year 4760 from creation. AD 800

Otto I, the German king, is declared emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and revives the empire by copying Charlemagne’s alliance of church and state in AD 962. Year 4922 from creation – AD 962. From this time forward, the Holy Roman Empire would exist continuously until Napoleon Bonaparte replaced it with his confederation of the Rhine in 1806.

Prince Vladimir of Kiev (grandson of Olga) converted to Christianity in AD 988 after studying all the major religions. Vladimir chose Greek Christianity (Orthodoxy) over Roman Christianity (Catholicism). He proclaimed Christianity as the official Russian religion and decreed his subjects be baptized. Christian Orthodoxy was the official religion of the state until 1917. Year 4948 from creation – AD 988

It was called the Great Schism of 1054 and signaled the separation of the Orthodox Church in the East from the Roman Church in the West. The Orthodox Church believed the pope should not have absolute control of the church and that a council of bishops should determine church matters; and the west believed the pope should have undisputed control. The Western Roman Church developed into the Roman Catholic Church, and the Eastern church developed into the Eastern, Greek, and Russian Orthodox Churches. Year 5014 from creation – AD 1054. Pope Nicholas II issues a decree that cardinals should elect the pope in AD 1059.

William the Conqueror was crowned King of England after the Normandy conquest of England in AD 1066. William’s Norman and Christian ideals brought about great change to England and made him one of England’s most important reformers. Year 5026 from creation – AD 1066

Pope Urban II launched the First Crusade to the Holy Land in AD 1085. After the fall of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks, the Byzantine emperor requests aid from the pope to send soldiers and aid to help recover the lost territory. The Crusaders captured Jerusalem in 1099. Year 5043 from creation – AD 1085. On the way to the Holy Land, the crusaders massacre Jews of the Rhineland (modern-day Germany).

In AD 1147, Crusaders massacred Jews in Rhineland for the second time as they march again to the Holy Land. This time they were unsuccessful, and the crusade ended in utter defeat at Damascus. Year 5105 from creation – AD 1147.

Saladin, the Caliph of the Muslims, captured Jerusalem in AD 1187 after defeating the Christian Crusaders. Year 5145 from creation – AD 1187. The third crusade was organized in AD 1189 by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, Richard I (the lion-hearted) of England, and Phillip II of France, and it became known as the Crusade of Kings. The crusade was unsuccessful in liberating Jerusalem and had to settle for a three-year truce with Muslims that allowed Christian pilgrims safe passage to Jerusalem. In 1202, Pope Innocent III launched the fourth crusade to recapture Jerusalem, but instead the goal changed, and they sacked Constantinople and set up Latin rule there.

In 1215, King John of England issued the Magna Carta, which means Great Charter. This charter limited royal power and placed greater power within the curia regis (feudal assembly) that would later become the British Parliament. The Magna Carta became the foundation for present-day English law, as well as all forms of constitutional governments such as the United States. Year 5173 from creation – AD 1215

Jews are expelled from England by King Edward, confiscating all their assets for himself. This tragedy occurred on the 9th day of Av on the Jewish calendaring AD 1290 – Year 5248 from creation – AD 1290.

The Hundred Years’ War begins between France and England began in AD 1337. It lasted until the French, inspired by Joan of Arc, drove out the last of the British from their shores in AD 1337 – Year 5295 from creation – AD 1337. This was also the year the bubonic plague (black death) spread across Europe. Up to 40 percent of those living in the populated cities died as a result of the plague. The Jews were sometimes blamed for poisoning wells.

In AD 1380, John Wycliffe (known as the morning star of the reformation), an Oxford theologian, supervised translating the Latin Vulgate New Testament into English. Year 5338 from creation – AD 1380. Wycliffe and his group then translated the Old Testament in AD 1382. John Wycliffe challenged the popes’ control, church hierarchy, indulgences, and the church’s belief that Christ was literally present in the bread and wine of the Mass. After his death, Wycliffe was condemned for heresy, his body was exhumed and burned, and his ashes were scattered on the Swift River.

In AD 1391, Jews in Spain were given a choice to convert to Christianity or be massacred. Many chose death, but many more chose Christianity and continued to practice Judaism secretly. Year 5347 from creation – AD 1391

Jan Hus, a priest and professor in Prague, was influenced by the writings of John Wycliffe. His attacks against the clergy made him popular with the people but not so much among his fellow priests. He was eventually excommunicated and forced into exile. In AD 1414, he was arrested and put on trial for heresy. He was found guilty and put in prison for a year. In AD 1415, Jan Hus was burned at the stake. Year – 5370 from creation – AD 1415.

Joan of Arc was born a peasant in Domremy, France, during the Hundred Years’ War against the English. As a youth, Joan saw visions and heard voices telling her to liberate her county. She convinced King Charles VII of her spiritual calling and guaranteeing victory for France. She led the French into battle at Orleans in AD 1429 and four other battles that followed in which the French were victorious. She was captured by the English in AD 1431 and was burned at the stake. Year 5384 from creation – AD 1431

The Byzantine Empire’s capital, Constantinople, fell to the Ottoman Turks (Turkish Muslims) in AD 1453. The city was renamed Istanbul. Year 5406 from creation – AD 1453. The Ottoman Empire eventually covered much of the Middle East, North Africa, and southeastern Europe. Istanbul would remain the new capital of Turkey until AD 1923 when Ankara replaced it.

Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press machine in AD 1456. Year 5409 from creation – AD 1456. The first book printed was called the Gutenberg Bible, which was the Vulgate translation of the Bible.

Pope Sixtus IV initiated the Spanish Inquisition in AD 1476. Year 5429 from creation – AD 1476. Tomas de Torquemada was appointed the Spanish Grand Inquisitor. He set up tribunals that persecuted Jews and Muslims who had been forced to convert to Christianity and were suspected of duplicitous worship. They were called heretics. The tribunals used torture to extract information, and burning at the stake was the main means of execution. The tribunals lasted for over three hundred years.

In AD 1488, the first complete Hebrew Old Testament was printed in book form by Johann Gutenberg’s new printing press. The Old Testament scriptures were now available in Hebrew in large numbers. Year 5441 from creation – AD 1488

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain issue Spain’s edict of expulsion for all Jews who were of the faith of Judaism. The edict was issued on March 31, 1492, and stated that every Jew who did not immediately get baptized had to leave the country by August 2, 1492 (Av 9 on the Jewish calendar). Year 5445 from creation. AD 1492. Note: this 9th day of Av is the same day that the first Jewish Temple was destroyed (586 BC) and the second Temple was destroyed (AD 70). It is also the same day that the Jews were expelled in AD 1290.

On August 3, 1492, a day after the Jews were expelled from Spain, Christopher Columbus set sail on the Santa Maria to find a quicker route to the Far East. He headed west, and on October 11, 1492, he spotted land and landed on an island he named San Salvador. This was the day Columbus discovered America.

The Italian, Leonardo Da Vinci, painted the Last Supper in AD 1498. Year 5451 from creation – AD 1498. Ottaviano dei Petrucci of Venice prints music with movable type in AD 1501.

In AD 1506, Pope Julius II issued orders for construction work to begin on St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Year 5459 from creation – AD 1506. Michelangelo was one of the artists involved in designing the dome of the church. The project was completed in AD 1615. The church raised money for construction by selling indulgences. The church claimed that the money contributed would shorten a family member’s stay in purgatory. In AD 1512, Michelangelo completes painting the ceilings of the Sistine Chapel, one of the greatest artistic achievements of all time.

The Ottoman Empire began building its dynasty in about AD 1300. It conquered Constantinople in AD 1453 and, in AD 1516, defeated the Egyptian armies, giving the Turks control of Syria and Palestine. Year 5469 from creation – AD 1516. The Ottoman sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent, built the walls that still surround Jerusalem. The Ottoman Empire controlled Palestine for four hundred years until World War II.

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, published the first Greek New Testament in AD 1516, beating the release of Spain’s Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros’ work – Year 5469 from creation – AD 1516. This Bible translation challenged the Vulgate’s domination and was the text used by Martin Luther to translate the New Testament into German. The Greek text was also used by William Tyndale to translate the New Testament into English. Francisco Cisneros died in AD 1517.

4,550 years (Epochs 1-13) + 927 years (Epoch 14) = 5,477 years

Epoch 15: The Protestant Reformation Era – AD 1517 to AD 1648 = 131 years

“The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would define the continent in the modern era. In northern and central Europe, reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin and Henry VIII challenged papal authority and questioned the Catholic Church’s ability to define Christian practice. They argued for a religious and political redistribution of power into the hands of Bible-and pamphlet-reading pastors and princes. The disruption triggered wars, persecutions and the so-called Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church’s delayed but forceful response to the Protestants” {1}

On October 31 (Halloween Day), 1517, Martin Luther, an Augustine monk, theologian and scholar, nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to the door of the Castle church in Wittenberg, Germany. These Theses were ninety-five arguments against the Roman Catholic Church’s use of indulgences and the pope’s supremacy in matters of the word of God. Martin Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses marked the beginning of the Reformation against the Catholic Church. Year 5470 from creation – AD 1517. The Church excommunicated him in AD 1521, and Luther was called to state his case before them in Worms, Germany. This meeting (trial) was later called the Diet of Worms. Martin Luther would not recant his writings and was later released. His brave and righteous words inspired many other priests and monks to take their stand against the Church as well.

Ulrich Zwingli from Zurich, Switzerland, was a scholar and priest who began a great reform movement in AD 1523. Year 5472 from creation – AD 1523. Zwingli’s Sixty-Seven Articles vastly changed church practices in terms of authority, worship, and the sacraments. A group called the Anabaptists separated themselves from Zwinglis over the issue of infant baptism in AD 1525. They believed that only those who were old enough to understand and publicly confess their faith should be baptized. They eventually became known as the Mennonites, named after Menno Simmons, a Dutch Roman Catholic priest who became their leader in AD 1536.

William Tyndale published the first English New Testament in AD 1525, helping to evangelize England. Year 5474 from creation. AD 1525. He was arrested and executed in AD 1536. William Tyndale’s translation was the foundation for the King James, Revised Standard, and the English Standard versions that followed.

Many of the Jews who fled Spain in AD 1492 relocated to Portugal. However, in AD 1531, Pope Leo X expanded it to Portugal. Tens of thousands were brought to trial and tortured, and thousands were burned at the stake. The Inquisition did not end until approximately AD 1765. Year 5480 from creation – AD 1531

King Henry VIII of England, a devout Catholic, received the title “Defender of the Faith” from Pope Leo X. However, in AD 1529, he began to usurp the power of the Church in order to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon, and marry Anne Boleyn. In AD 1534, Henry had the English Parliament pass the Act of Supremacy law, which declared that the king was to be the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England. This Act placed England outside the Roman Catholic Church’s control. Year 5483 from creation – AD 1534. This Act laid the legal groundwork for the English Reformation. Even today, English bishops are still appointed by the sovereign.

In AD 1536, John Calvin, a French scholar and Christian, published his most influential literary work, Institutes of the Christian Religion. It soon became popular among Protestants as it described their beliefs and doctrines. It is considered to be one of the most influential Protestant systematic theology of all times. Year 5485 from creation – AD 1536.

Suleiman the Magnificent completes the walls and gates of Jerusalem, as the city had been without a wall since AD 1229. The Damascus Gate was finished in AD 1542. Year 5491 from creation – AD 1542. The walls still stand today.

Nicolas Copernicus, a Polish astronomer, physician and cleric, published his monumental work On Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in AD 1543. Year 5492 from creation – AD 1543. He was the first person to work out mathematically a heliocentric concept of the solar system in which the planets revolve around the sun instead of the sun revolving around the earth. Both the Catholic Church and Martin Luther opposed the Copernican theory on theological grounds. Copernicus’s theory eventually became the foundation for modern astronomy.

Queen Mary I of England, daughter of Catherine of Aragon and King Henry VIII, ascended the throne in AD 1553 to become Queen of England. Queen Mary’s driving goal was to see that England became a Catholic nation once again. The next year, she issued a decree proclaiming Protestantism as a heresy. Year 5502 from creation – AD 1554. Mary ruthlessly enforced the edict from AD 1555 to AD 1558 as she put to death hundreds of Protestants, earning her the nickname of “Bloody Mary.”

Giovanni Pietro Caraffa, an Italian, became Pope Paul IV in AD 1555. He had previously been a cardinal where he reorganized the Italian Inquisition. Year 5503 from creation – AD 1555. He also published the book Index of Forbidden Books which made him extremely unpopular.

Hugh Latimer and Nicolas served as royal chaplains under King Henry VIII. When Mary Tudor ascended to the throne, she quickly removed them from their positions and tried them as heretics. They were condemned to death for their Protestant faith and burned at the stake. Year 5503 from creation – AD 1555. It was reported that Latimer told Ridley, “Be of good comfort, Master Ridley, and play the man. We shall this day light such a candle by God’s grace in England as I trust shall never be put out.” Truer words were never spoken as history bears his statement out. Thomas Cranmer, the archbishop of Canterbury during King Henry VIII’s reign, was burned at the stake the next year, AD 1556, by Bloody Mary. At the event, Cranmer denounced Catholicism and bravely affirmed his faith in God and the Bible.

King Henry VIII’s second daughter, Elizabeth, assumed the throne in AD 1558. She reinstated Protestant policies and abolished religious persecution in England. Year 5506 from creation – AD 1558. Elizabeth I ruled for 45 years. During this time, England had defeated the Spanish Armada, and the Union Jack flag flew over every ocean. The country was thoroughly Protestant, and English culture was at its peak. Queen Elizabeth died in AD 1603 and was succeeded by James I, the son of Mary Queen of Scots.

John Knox was originally a Roman Catholic but converted to Protestantism in AD 1542. Knox became the leader of the Scottish Reformation in AD 1559. Year 5507 from creation – AD 1559. After James VI took the throne from Mary, Knox preached at his coronation. John Knox’s work and preaching made Scotland the most Calvinistic country in the world and the birthplace of modern Presbyterianism.

The Geneva Bible was published in AD 1560 by Protestant exiles in Geneva, Switzerland, which included most likely John Knox and William Whittingham. Year 5508 from creation – AD 1560. The Geneva Bible had both the Old and New Testaments included and quickly became the household Bible of English-speaking Protestants. It was used extensively for two generations before being replaced by the 1611 King James Bible.

John Foxe, a Protestant educator in England, publishes Actes and Monumentes, popularly knowns as Foxe’s Book of Martyrs in AD 1563, which recorded all the stories of the martyrs who surrendered their lives for the Protestant Reformation movement. Year 5511 from creation – AD 1563

Pope Pius V issued his Bull Hebraneorum Gens in which he expelled most of the Jews from the Papal States in AD 1569. Year 5517 from creation – AD 1569

In AD 1588, King Philip II of Spain sent the mighty Spanish Armada to invade England and overthrow Elizabeth I, the Queen of England. English Admiral Francis Drake defeated the 130-ship armada with only 170 merchant ships and 34 Royal Navy ships, as he lit a few small boats on fire and used the stormy winds to carry them to the Spanish fleet. The fire spread throughout the Spanish Armada, and the fleet was destroyed within a matter of hours. Year 5536 from creation – AD 1588.

In AD 1608, the Sixth General Congregation of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits (a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church), ruled that no one could be admitted to their order who had a Jewish ancestor in their lineage going back five generations. Year 5556 from creation – AD 1608. These rulings remained in effect until AD 1946.

Minister John Smyth founds First Baptist Church in Amsterdam. Year 5557 from creation – AD 1609. Smyth was influenced by the Mennonite practice of baptizing believers (and not infants) only. Some members of Smyth’s congregation later migrated to America among the Pilgrims, while others founded the General Baptist movement in Great Britain.

The King James Bible is published under King James I reign and head of the Church of England. Year 5559 from creation – AD 1611. The King James translation was easier to read than the Geneva Bible, so it gained wide acceptance. The King James Version remained the Bible of English-speaking Protestants for over 300 years and is still the preference of countless Christians today.

The first African men slaves arrive in Jamestown, Virginia and are put to work in the tobacco, rice, and cotton fields. Year 5567 from creation – AD 1619

Forty-one men aboard the Mayflower signed the Mayflower compact off the coast of Cape Cod on November 11, AD 1620, in effect establishing a new government. Year 5568 from creation – AD 1620. The men were Pilgrims associated with the Separatist church in Scrooby, England, who were seeking religious freedom in America. They had intended to land in Virginia but were blown off course and landed in Cape Cod.

In AD 1629, King Charles I of England disbanded Parliament and ruled alone for the next eleven years. Charles was not very tolerant of some of the Protestant groups, so a group of Puritan businessmen broadened their charter of their Massachusetts Bay trading company to include colonization. The next year, about 1,000 settlers arrived in Salem, Massachusetts. Year 5578 from creation – AD 1630. Only Puritans could hold public office in the new colony, which actually created a theocracy in which religion guided civil government.

Galilei Galileo was an Italian physicist, mathematician, and astronomer who invented the telescope in AD 1610. Galileo observed that Jupiter’s moons revolved around the planet. This observation caused him to agree with Copernicus’ theory that the sun and not the earth was the center of the solar system. Even though the idea gained widespread acceptance in Europe, the Inquisition declared it heretical. In AD 1632, Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World. The next year, the Inquisition brought him to trial, and under the threat of death, Galileo recanted the Copernican theory. Year 5581 from creation – AD 1633. Galileo lived under house arrest until his death in AD 1648.

Harvard College was founded by the Massachusetts Bay Colony’s Great and General Court in AD 1636. The college was named after its benefactor, Puritan minister John Harvard of Charlestown. Year 5584 from creation – AD 1636. The same year, Roger Williams of England (a Separatist Puritan) secured a colonial charter and founded Providence, Rhode Island.

The English Civil War between the monarch under King Charles I and the English Parliament began in AD 1642 and lasted until AD 1648. King Charles declared war on Parliament in AD 1642. Year 5590 from creation. Parliament was ultimately victorious (temporarily), and Charles I was executed.

George Fox began preaching in England in AD 1647, although he had no formal education in the priesthood. Fox shunned many of the practices of the Church of England and instead believed that true spirituality came from God speaking directly to the human soul through the Holy Spirit. Year 5595 from creation – AD 1647. Fox traveled throughout Europe and North America and developed congregations and followers called “Friends of the Truth.” Fox was imprisoned for nearly six years. Once, when Fox was on trial, he urged the judge to “tremble at the word of the Lord.” Thus, the judge facetiously called Fox’s friends “Quakers,” the name by which his group of believers has been known ever since.

In AD 1648, the Treaty of Westphalia was signed, which ended the Thirty Years War between the Protestants (Evangelical Union) and the Catholics (Catholic League). Some scholars credit the treaty with providing the foundation of the modern state system and defining the concept of territorial sovereignty. Year 5560 from creation – AD 1648.

5477 years (Epochs 1-14) + 131 years (Epoch 15) = 5,608 years

In the next part, we will review Epochs 16-19, which covers 373 years of history.

{1} The Reformation