Timelines :: Russia

russia-tlThis is intended to be as complete a timeline on Russia as can possibly be done. Russia was in the beginning a place for the Vikings to stop for the winter before heading back to their home. They were trading with the Byzantine Romans in Constantinople. The native people of Russia were then known as the Rus.


860
Novgorod the first Russian city is founded.

Late 930’s
A Rus “prince” Oleg captures the city of Tmutorokan, which is then being held by a rival tribe known as the Khazar. The Governor of Khazar learns of this and captures several Byzantine cities on the Crimea killing many Rus. Oleg comes out to do battle and is defeated and forced to surrender. This is a major victory over the Rus.

965
Khazar is defeated by the Kiev tribe.

988
Orthodox Christianity is brought to Russia by St. Vladimir when he marries a Byzantine Princess.

1147
Prince Yuri Dolgoruky founds Moscow. He is a ruler of the Rus tribe in the northeast. He builds the Kremlin, which stands for fortress along the Moscow River.

1169
The City of Kiev is sacked and burned.

1223
The First Mongol Invasion led by Genghis Khan fails.

1237-1242
Batu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan, invaded Russia

1240
Alexander Nevsky, a Novgorod prince, defeats the Swedes. Two years later he will defeat the German Teutonic Knights who are trying to invade Russia.

1326
The capital is moved from Vladimir to Moscow.

1362
Kiev is taken by the kings of Lithuania.

1439
The Council of Florence reunites the Eastern and Western Christian Church. Russia denies that this has happened and in 1448 declares themselves the final church.

1478
Ivan III makes Novgorod part of Russia.

1480
The Mongols cease to rule Russia as Ivan III takes over and is proclaimed The Great.

1493
A major fire destroys the capital of Moscow. Ivan III proclaims that no more buildings will be built of wood.

1497
Ivan III passes Russia’s first law code: The Sudebnik.

1510
The area of Pskov is made part of Russia

1517-1519
First books printed in Russian.

1533
Ivan IV succeeds to the throne at the age of three. Until 1547 he rules under the regency of his mother and nobles. During this time his best friend Maliuta Skuratov starts the Streltsy and Oprichniki, which are respectfully Russia’s first army and secret police.

Jan 16, 1547
Ivan IV has himself crowned Russian Czar in Moscow. This is the first time the title is used.

1553
Russia is “opened” to trade with London.

1565-1572:
Ivan IV fights a long campaign against the city of Novgorod killing many people in a series of pogroms.

1571
Moscow is burned by the Crimean Tartars.

1581
Poland invades Russia and Russia invades Siberia.

1582
In a fit of rage Ivan IV kills his son.

Aug 10, 1582
Russia and Poland end their war. In the treaty Russia loses access to the Baltic and gives Livonia and Estonia to Poland.

1584
Ivan IV dies and is succeed by his weak-minded son, Fyodor I. Fyodor’s brother in law, Boris Godunov, keeps control of the army.

1585
The city of Archangelsk is founded.

Feb 17, 1598
Godunov is elected Czar in place of Fyodor. This starts the so-called “Time of Troubles” in which nobles fought a civil war for the throne.

1610-1612
Moscow is occupied by the Poles.

1611-1617
Novgorod is occupied by the Swedes.

Feb 22, 1613
A Russian Nobleman named Mikhail Romanov is elected Czar over Russia, which ends the Time of Troubles. The Romanov’s will rule Russia until 1917.

1617
Russia makes peace with the Swedes and loses all access to the Baltic.

1645
Mikhail Romanov dies and is replaced by his son, Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov.

1649
The practice of serfdom is started in Russia. Also Alexei passes his code of law: Ulozhenie

1654
The Ukraine becomes part of Russia.

1667
Kiev, White Russia, and Smolensk become part of Russia.

1676
Alexei dies and passes the throne to his son, Fedor III.

1682
After the death of Fedor with no heirs there is a power struggle. Emerging is the boyar Sophia who takes over as Regent with Ivan V and Peter I next in line.

1684
Sophia starts persecution of Jews and Pagans.

1689
Peter I takes over as Czar.

1695
The Russian navy is formed.

July 18, 1696
Peter I takes the fortress of Azov from the Turks allowing Russia access to the Black Sea.

1697
Kamchatka is made part of Russia.

1697-1698
Peter I visits France. During his absence a boy named Streltsy tries to take over but is crushed.

1700
The Great Northern War with Sweden begins.

1703
St. Petersburg is founded. Russia’s first newspaper starts printing.

1713
The capital is moved from Moscow to St. Petersburg.

1718
Russia starts a poll tax and a university system.

1721
Russia and Sweden sign the treaty of Nystad by which Russia gets Livonia, Estonia, Karelia, and Ingria. The first postal service is established.

1724
Peter makes a Table of Ranks for the nobility.

1725
Peter I dies and is succeeded by his second wife Catherine I.

1725-1729
Russia sends out an Arctic expedition.

1727
Peter II, Peter I grandson, takes the throne.

1730
Anna Ivanova, daughter of Peter I co-ruler Ivan V becomes czar.

1734
The Russians take Danzig in Poland.

1740
At the death of Anna her niece’s son, Ivan VI becomes Czar at the age of 1 year. He was overthrown in 1741 and exiled to Siberia where he would be murdered in 1764.

1741
The Russian second Arctic expedition discovers Alaska. Elizabeth Romanov, the daughter of Peter I, takes the throne in a bloodless coup.

1744
Russia abolishes capital punishment

1745
England, Austria, Saxony, and the Netherlands declare war on Russia. Russia destroys the Prussian Army and in 1760 joins forces with Austria to invade Berlin.

1746
Purchase of serfs by non-nobles is abolished.

1761
Elizabeth dies and is replaced by Anna’s son Peter III.

1762
Peter III of Russia is murdered by his wife Catherine II who takes over.

1764
All lands owned by the Church not having churches on them are taken.

1770
The Russian Navy destroys the Ottoman Navy at the battle of Chesme.

1772
Poland is divided between Russia and Prussia.

1773
Russia sign’s a treaty with the Ottoman’s, which brings them land on the Mediterranean and official protective status of the Orthodox Church.

1773-1775
A Cossack named Pugachev claiming to be Peter III leads a revolt against Catherine II. He is eventually arrested and beheaded and the Cossacks are scattered.

1781-1786
The Ukraine is made part of Russia.

1783
The Crimea is taken by the Russians.

1784
Russia establishes their first colony in Alaska.

1787-1792
The Ottoman Empire again declares war against Russia. After losing an invasion bid they quickly make peace.

1792
Russia invades Poland. A treaty gives most of Poland to Russia.

1794
Russia signs an alliance pact with the British and Austrians against Revolutionary France.

1796
Catherine II dies and is succeeded by her son Paul I.

1799
The Russians put colonies into California.

1801
Paul I is murdered and succeeded by his son Alexander I. Sale of Serfs without land is permitted. The eastern part of Georgia becomes part of Russia.

1805
Russia joins a new alliance against France. The same year she is defeated in battle by Napoleon.

1806
Russia defeats French forces at the battle of Pultusk.

1809
Finland breaks free of Sweden and becomes part of Russia.

1812
Napoleon I invades Russia. The Victorious Napoleon enters Moscow in September only to find it set on fire around him by the retreating army. He spends a month there before leaving for France in October.

1813
Alexander I chases Napoleon back to Paris entering Warsaw, Berlin, and finally Paris in 1814.

1815
Russia is recognized as a world power at the Treaty of Venus and joins the Holy Allegiance.

1816-1819
Serfdom is abolished in the Baltic provinces.

1824
Russia signs a treaty with Britain giving the English all her North American colonies except Alaska.

1825
Alexander I dies and is succeeded by his youngest brother Nicholas I.

1830-1831
A polish revolution breaks out. It ends in a stalemate.

1833
A new Code of Laws is made.

1838
Russia gets its first railroad. It goes from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoe Selo.

May 14, 1851
Russia opens a second railroad from St. Petersburg to Moscow.

1854-1856
The Crimea War in which Russia tried to take more of the Crimea. It ends with Russia losing.

1855
Nicholas I kills himself and is succeeded by his son Alexander II.

1858-1860
Russia acquires from China the provinces of Amur and Maritime. They also add the Caucuses to Russia.

February 19, 1861
Alexander II frees all the serfs in Russia.

1863-1865
Alexander II starts reforms in the law and education systems.

1864-1885
Russia starts a conquest of Central Asia.

March 30, 1867
Russia sells Alaska to the United States for $7.2 million.

1873
The terrorist organization To the People is formed.

1877-1878
The Russian-Ottoman war breaks out. This war would end with a victory for Russia giving Russia influence over: Serbia, Romania, Bosnia, Bulgaria.

1881
Czar Alexander II is assassinated by a bomb thrown by To the People. His son Alexander III takes over.

1884
The University system is put under a strong reactionary reform due to the assassination of Alexander II.

1891
The Trans-Siberian railroad is started.

1893
Russia and France become allies.

1894
The last Czar Nicholas II takes over for his father upon the latter’s death.

1895
Russia, France, and Germany force Japan to return Liao-dong peninsula to China. That same year Mormon missionaries come to Russia.

1896
Czar Nicholas II makes a state visit to France and lays down a cornerstone to the first Russian battleship called Alexander III.

1900
Russia invades Manchuria during the Boxer Rebellion.

1901
Japan asks Russia to leave China.

1902
U.S. Secretary of State John Hay protests Russia for being in China. Along with France, Russia acknowledges the protest but does nothing.

1903
Czar Nicholas II declares freedom of Religion in Russia. That same year V. I. Lenin’s party splits into two parts with the Bolsheviks following him and the Mensheviks arguing for a less stringent view of Marx. Also that year a Russian monk named Rasputin comes to St. Petersburg claiming to have seen the Virgin Mary who gave him his powers. The Zionist movement also starts in Russia that year.

1904-1905
The Russo-Japanese War.

Jan 9, 1905
On what is to become known as Bloody Sunday, Russian Orthodox Father George Gapon leads some 20,000 troops into St. Petersburg. They march on the Winter Palace to present their grievances to Nicholas II. Russian troops panic and fire into the crowd killing hundreds. This leads to the Revolution of 1905 in which government officials were attacked, peasants seized private estates, and workers strikes paralyze the country. Finally Nicholas II agrees to the demand of adopting a constitution and allowing a parliament called the Duma which meets for the first time in 1906.

1906
Peter Stoylpin is elected first prime minister of the Russian Duma a post he would hold until he was executed in 1911.

1907
There are only 15,000 Jews left in the country after a series of pogroms. Also that year Nicholas II dissolves the Duma. The Duma ignores him and continues to meet. The Triple Entente of Russia, France, and England is formed.

1911
Stoylpin resigns as Prime Minister. A few months later he is assassinated at the Kiev opera house in front of Nicholas II. He dies four days later.

1911-1913
The Balkan Wars.

1914
In March Russia raised its army from 460,000 to 1,700,000. That July Russia states that it would support and protect Serbia against Austria. In August, Germany and Austria-Hungry declare war on Russia. A few days later Russia wins a small battle against Germany at Gumbinnen. Then in November, the Germans tried to invade Russia getting as far as Warsaw, Poland before calling it off. The Russians have lost 90,000 to the Germans 35,000. Also that year Russia declared war on Turkey.

1915
This year sees bad losses for the Russians as the Germans march ever closer to Russia proper. By the end of the year Russia has lost 190,000. Nicholas II takes personal command at the front.

December 16, 1916
The Russian “monk” Rasputin who has become close to the Czar’s family due to his ability to heal the heir to the throne is murdered by Russian nobles. He is poisoned by cyanide, stabbed, shot, beaten, thrown out of a second story window, beaten once more, shot once more, and thrown into the Neva River where instead of drowning at first he bashes his head on the ice in his struggle to escape death then finally drowns. Later his body will be dug up and set on fire to ensure that he is truly dead.

March 8, 1917
Russia’s “February Revolution”(based on the Old Style Calendar) begins with Russian troops refusing to fight.

March 16, 1917
Czar Nicholas II abdicates the throne. He refuses to let his son Alexis rule since he is sickly. The family is taken prisoner to Petrograd before being moved later in the year to Siberia.

March 22, 1917
Alexander Kerensky forms a republic and takes office as Prime Minister. He is recognized by the United States.

April 16, 1917
After years in exile, Lenin returns to Russia to begin the Bolshevik Revolution.

June 17, 1917
Russia attacks Germany again after months of ceasefire.

July 20, 1917
Alexander Kerensky becomes primer of Russia. Russia is declared a republic.

November 6, 1917
The “October Revolution” led by Lenin and Trotsky takes power in Petrograd.

November 7, 1917
The Government of Kerensky falls. Kerensky flees to France and then the United States where he dies sometime in the 1970’s. Lenin takes over as premier.

December of 1917
The Cheka is formed and Germany and Russia sign a new ceasefire

Feb 5, 1918
The Russians declare the separation of church and stateMarch 3, 1918: The Russians sign the peace treaty of Brest-Litovisk with Germany and Austria which ends their participation in the war. They have lost 1,7000,000 men

March 5, 1918
The capital of Russia is moved to Moscow. British troops land at Murmansk

April 1918
Japanese troops land at Vladivostok.

June 1918
The committee of the village poor and the nationalization of industry begins.

July 16, 1918
Czar Nicholas II, his wife Alexandria, their 5 children, and 4 servants are shot to death under orders from Lenin.

August 2, 1918
American troops land at Vladivostok and Archangelsk.

November 11, 1918
World War I ends. The Soviets declare that the treaty of Brest-Litovisk is null and void.

Late November 1918
French troops land at Odessa and British troops land at Batum.

Jan 24, 1919
All remaining family members of the Romanov’s are murdered if they have not yet escaped.

October 1919
Allied troops leave Russia.

January 1920
The Allied blockade is lifted.

November 1920
The Russian Civil War ends.

January 1921
New Economic Policy begins. This policy had the State keep all heavy industry, banking, and transportation but gave private shops, restaurants, and small scale manufacturing to individuals with the provision that only family members could work there. A system of graduated taxes was established and the state owned all the land. Education was free at all levels but it was mixed book and physical education. Censorship of books and newspapers was established. All churches were destroyed and the nuns and priests were sent to labor camps. The Jewish population was allowed to keep speaking Yiddish but they had no synagogues and had to live in Jewish areas as farmers.

April 1922
Cheka was replaced by the OGPU. Lenin has a stroke due to an assassination attempt. He will have another stroke in 1923.

Dec 30, 1922
Lenin declares that Russia is now known as The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or USSR. Germany is the first to recognize her. In 1924 Great Britain, Italy, and France recognize the country.

Jan 21, 1924
Lenin dies from complications of an assassination attempt a few years before. His death opens a power struggle between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky. Stalin is on a committee with Trotsky, Kamenev, Zinoviev, and Bukharin called the Politburo. . By 1928, Stalin will have assumed complete power. Lenin’s body would be mummified and laid in a marble tomb in Red Square where it still lies today.

Jan 24, 1924
The City of St. Petersburg is renamed Leningrad in honor of Lenin. It would change its name back to St. Petersburg in 1991.

1925
Russia takes over Outer Mongolia and also establishes the official news agency of Russia called TASS.

1926
Trotsky, Zinoviev, and Kamenev are expelled from the Politburo.

Nov 12, 1927
Trotsky and his followers are expelled from the Communist Party as Stalin seizes control of the country.

1928
The first five year plan: Soviet Steel production is set for 10 million tons, blast furnaces were to be constructed or modernized, and factories were to be built.

1929
Trotsky is deported out of the country and Bukharin is kicked out of the Politburo. Also collectivization and industrialization is begun.

1931
The Bible is declared illegal to own or publish.

1932
The Soviets sign non-aggression pacts with Finland and France.

1933
The United States recognizes the Soviet Union. In a weird twist of fate, Harpo Marx becomes the first entertainer allowed in.

1934
The League of Nations allows the USSR a seat, the Second Five Year Plan: steel is to be raised to 17 million tons a year and cement, coal, and oil were to be produced, and all Jews are moved to Birobidzhan. Also the first purge begins.

1935
Collective farming is started.

1936
Russia signs a treaty with China against Japan. On December 5, a constitution is issued in the USSR even though Stalin still holds all the power.

April 18, 1937
Leon Trotsky safe in Mexico City calls for Stalin to be removed from power. This sets Stalin off and he starts the first massive purge. The purge kills army officers, empties all prison camps, sends more people to the camps, and orders killed all official census counters when they reveal that the population of the USSR is decreasing. All in all 14,000,000 were killed in the purges which would last two years. Many Americans who are visiting the country are killed also. Trotsky would be murdered in 1940 by order of Stalin.

1938-1941
The third five-year plan

1939
Collective farms are ordered to work so many days.

Aug 23, 1939
Germany and Russia sign the Moltov-Ribbentrop Pact, which allows Germany to invade Poland and the USSR to invade Finland. They also agree to let the USSR divide Poland and have influence over Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia.

September 17, 1939
The Soviet Union invades Poland more then two weeks after Germany. Within a week they have occupied eastern Poland and have lost 737 dead.

September 27, 1939
Germany occupies Warsaw, Poland and the war seems to be at an end. The same day Russia and Germany sign a new pact, which allows Germany to have more of Poland in exchange to Russia being allowed to put troops in Estonia and Latvia.

November 10, 1939-March 13, 1940
The Soviet Union invades and defeats Finland In return they are dropped from the League of Nations.

May 6, 1941
Stalin declares himself Primer of Russia and replaces his foreign secretary Vyacheslav M. Molotov.

June 22, 1941
Germany invades Russia in violation of their pact. It is the largest invasion in the history of the World.

June 24, 1941
US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt promises aid to the USSR. Finland declares war on the USSR.

July 13, 1941
Britain and the USSR become official allies. Germany has reached the Dniper River and taken 410,000 POW’s.

August 21-September 26, 1941
Kiev falls to the German Army and the German Army takes over 665,000 POW’s. This will cut off the Crimea Peninsula from the rest of the country. During this time Britain and the USSR enter Iran and open up a supply route.

September 4, 1941- January 1942
The Siege of Leningrad. The Soviet Union will lose at least a million civilians from starvation and disease.

October 2, 1941
Germany starts a drive on Moscow.

December 2, 1941
Only 25 miles away from Moscow, Germany is forced to stop due to temperatures of 40 below zero.

April 8, 1942
The Russians manage to open a railroad to Leningrad.

May 12, 1942
In its first major offensive, the Soviet Army manages to free Kharkov in the Ukraine from Germany only to lose it and 250,000 men a few days later.

June 11, 1942
The United States and the USSR sign an agreement to aid the Soviet Army.

June 28, 1942
The German army starts an offensive to take the oil fields in the Caucuses and the city of Stalingrad.

August 23, 1942
Germany surrounds Stalingrad and sets up a siege.

November 22, 1942
The Soviet Army surrounds the German Army around Stalingrad.

Jan 11, 1943
The USSR demands the German Army surrender in Stalingrad only to be refused. The USSR lifts the siege of Leningrad.

Jan 31, 1943
The German Sixth Army surrenders to the Soviet’s.

November 28, 1943
The Allies meet in Tehran, Iran to map out strategy for the war.

Jan 4, 1944
The Soviet Army crosses the former Poland border and starts their drive to Germany. Finland refuses to consider an armistice.

October 18, 1944
The Soviet Union invades Czechoslovakia.

January 17, 1945
The Soviet Army liberates Warsaw, Poland. Two days later they free Lodz, Krakow, and Tarnow.

January 27, 1945
The Soviets stumble upon Auschwitz Concentration Camp.

February 4-12, 1945
The Allies meet at Yalta in the Ukraine.

March 30, 1945
The Soviet’s invade Austria.

April 11, 1945
The Soviet Army reaches the outskirts of Berlin and loses 3,000 men in a bloody attack.

April 23, 1945
The Soviet Army fights it’s way into Berlin.

May 2, 1945:
The Soviet’s announce the fall of Berlin after 12 days of house-to-house fighting.

August 2, 1945
The Allies meet one last time at Potsdam to discuss postwar Europe.

August 8, 1945
The USSR declares war against Japan and 14 days later invades Japan held China.

September 8, 1945
Korea is divided between the United States and USSR.

1946-1951
Fourth five year plan

January 23, 1948
The Soviets refuse the UN entrance into North Korea to supervise elections.

June 7, 1948
Czechoslovakia falls to Soviet puppet dictatorship.

June 24, 1948
The Berlin Blockade begins when the Soviets cut off all access to East Germany. The United States starts to drop supplies into Berlin.

July 2, 1948
Molotov renounces all aid from the Marshal Plan for the USSR and Soviet Puppet States. The USSR would start Comecon or the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. It does not have the same success as the Marshall Plan. Yugoslavia refuses to sign up for Comecon.

November 30, 1948
Official production of weapons grade plutonium begins in the Urals.

May 12, 1949
The Soviet Blockade of Berlin ends.

September 22, 1949
The Soviet Union explodes its first Atomic Bomb.

February 15, 1950
Stalin recognizes Communist China and signs a mutual pact defense treaty with Mao.

February 12, 1953
The Soviet Union breaks off relations with Israel.

March 5, 1953
Stalin dies in his sleep. Malenkov and Khrushchev hold dual power.

August 12, 1953
The Soviets test a Hydrogen Bomb.

December 31, 1953
In a bloodless coup, Khrushchev takes over power sending the four members of the Politburo to the Gulag in Siberia.

1954
The Russians expose ground troops to a nuclear test and the KGB is born.

May 14, 1955
The Soviet Union and seven other Communist bloc countries sign the Warsaw Pact as an answer to NATO.

June 29, 1955
The Soviet Army sends tanks into Poland to put down anti-communist demonstrations.

July 21, 1955
Khrushchev and Eisenhower meet in Geneva, Switzerland.

February 25, 1956
At the 20th Communist Party Congress, Khrushchev denounces Stalin.

1956
Russia crushes uprisings in Poland and Hungary.

August 26, 1957
The Soviet Union tests an intercontinental ballistic missile.

October 4, 1957
The Space Age begins when the Soviet Union launches Sputnik the first man made satellite.

November 3, 1957
The Soviet Union sends Sputnik 2 into orbit. On board her is a dog named Lakia.

January 6, 1958
The Soviet Union cuts back its armed forces by 300,000 due to budget problems.

March 31, 1958
The Soviet Union calls for an end to all atomic tests.

May 15, 1958
Sputnik III, the first space laboratory is launched into space.

1959-1965
The Seven-Year Plan

July 24, 1959
Vice President Richard Nixon visits Moscow and engages in a kitchen debate with Khrushchev.

September 12-14, 1959
The Soviets launch a man made probe to the moon.

September 15-28, 1959
Khrushchev visits the United States. There he sees Los Angels where he is denied entry to Disneyland, New York where he bangs his shoe on the desk at the United Nations, and Camp David where he and Eisenhower hold talks.

May 16, 1960
The Soviet Union walks out of a Big Four meeting in Paris due to Francis Gary Powers being shot down in his U-2 over Russia.

July 8, 1960
Francis Gary Powers is charged with Espionage. He would be found guilty on August 17 and sentenced to prison.

April 12, 1961
Yuri Gagrin becomes the first man into space.

April 14, 1961
The Soviet Union makes its first television broadcast

August 13-14, 1961
Because of the many escapes that have been made from East Germany to West Germany, the Berlin Wall is built.

Oct 30, 1961
The Soviet Union tests a hydrogen bomb estimated at 58 megatons. That same day Stalin’s body is removed from Lenin’s tomb and reburied in the wall of the Kremlin.

Nov 30, 1961
The Soviets veto a UN seat for Kuwait, which pleases Iraq.

February 10, 1962
The Soviet Union exchanges Frances Gary Powers.

March 17, 1962
Moscow asks the United States to pull out of South Vietnam.

August 5, 1962
The Soviet Union sets off a 40-megaton nuclear bomb.

October 16-29, 1962
The Cuban Missile Crises. The United States discovered that the Cubans had put nuclear missiles in Cuba. Kennedy orders a group called EXCOMM to form ideas what to do. When confronted about it the Soviets lie to Kennedy. Kennedy then decided to blockade the island until the Soviets pulled the missiles out and announced this to the nation on October 22. The Soviets pulled the ships carrying nuclear materials to Cuba back to the USSR and then asks Kennedy to pull the United States missiles out of Turkey in return for them pulling them out of Cuba. The world narrowly avoids World War III.

June 16-19, 1963
Russia sends the first women into space.

June 20, 1963
The Soviet Union and The United States agree to set up a hotline so that events like the Cuban Missile Crises cannot happen again. It goes into operation on August 30, 1963.

July 25-August 5, 1963
The United States and the USSR sign a treaty banning nuclear tests.

October 12, 1964
The first three-man crew is launched into space by Russia.

October 15, 1964
Khrushchev is removed from office and replaced by Brezhnev.

March 18, 1965
Russia performs the first space walk.

1966-1970
Eighth Five-Year Plan

March 29, 1966
Brezhnev condemns the US policy in Vietnam.

January 27, 1967
60 nations including Russia and the United States sign a treaty prohibiting the orbiting of nuclear missiles in space. This comes after Russia had managed to send a probe to the moon, Venus, and around the moon.

1968
New York to Moscow flights are started.

August 20, 1968
The Soviet Union sends tanks into Czechoslovakia to crush the “Prague Spring” movement of a more liberal government.

1969
China and Russia begin fighting on their border.

April 19, 1971
Russia launched its first space station.

September 11, 1971
Khrushchev dies.

1971-1975
Ninth five-year plan.

1972
Jews are restricted from leaving USSR.

February 1972
Nixon tours China giving collective heart attacks to the Soviet leadership.

April 10, 1972
Along with 70 other nations, the USA and USSR sign a treaty prohibiting biological weapons of mass destruction.

May 27, 1972
Nixon and Brezhnev sign SALT I, which reduces their nuclear arsenals. A year later the USSR will start production at 47 sights for biological weapons.

1974
Pepsi “invades” the Soviet Union.

July 15-19, 1975
The Apollo-Soyuz space mission takes place.

1976-1981
Tenth five-year plan

January 15, 1979
For a second time Russia uses its veto power in the United Nations when the UN asks Vietnam to leave Cambodia.

June 18, 1979
President Carter and Brezhnev sign SALT II which sets a limit on long-range bombers and missiles.

December 27, 1979
The Soviets invade Afghanistan and put a new puppet dictator in power with Soviet troops to back him up. Soviet losses are reported to be 15,000.

January 14, 1980
The UN votes 104-18 against the Soviets use of force in Afghanistan.

February 22, 1980
For the second time in history the United States beats Russia in a Gold medal Olympic hockey game.

June 22, 1980
The USSR announces that it will soon withdraw from Afghanistan. They fail to do so.

July 19-August 3, 1980
The Summer Olympics in Moscow. Many nations including the United States boycott due to Afghanistan.

1981-1985
Eleventh five-year plan.

January 22, 1982
President Reagan refuses to meet with Soviet leaders about Arms control due to the Soviet Policy in Poland.

November 10, 1982
Brezhnev dies and the power passes to Yuri Andropov.

1983
A Korean airliner is shot down by Soviets and Reagan calls the USSR an “evil empire”

February 13, 1984
Yuri Andropov dies and is replaced by Konstantin Chernenko.

May 8, 1984
The USSR announces it will not participate in the Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.

March 10, 1985
Chernenko dies and is replaced by Mikhail Gorbachev. He starts an anti-alcohol program and calls for economic reforms called Perestroika.

November 19, 1985
President Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev meet at Geneva.

February 19, 1986
The Mir Space Station is launched.

April 1986
The Chernobyl power plant accident.

October 11-12, 1986
President Reagan and Soviet President Gorbachev meet at Reykjavik, Iceland but fail to come to any agreements.

1986
Gorbachev cracks down on corruption.

May 28, 1987
A West German pilot named Mathias Rust evades Soviet Air control and lands his plane in Red Square. He will later be charged with espionage and sentenced to 4 years in prison.

November 24, 1987
The USSR and USA sign a treaty destroying short and medium range nuclear missiles.

December 7-10, 1987
Gorbachev comes to the United States to discuss Cold War matters.

1987
The USSR sends an embassy to Israel.

January 6, 1988
After 9 years of war, the USSR announced it would pull out its troops from Afghanistan. They had lost around 50,000 men.

May 29-June 1, 1988
President Reagan goes to Moscow for the first time to discuss destroying nuclear missiles.

September 30, 1988
Gorbachev fires all hard liners from his Politburo.

October 27, 1988
The Soviets admit to the world that they are $58,000,000,000 in debt.

December 6, 1988
Gorbachev comes to the United States for his second time to discuss matter with President-elect Bush.

January 1989
After a speech by Gorbachev promising independence to the Eastern bloc countries, Hungary allows freedom of assembly and association including to establishment of political parties and free elections. Moscow does not intervene.

February 1-4, 1989
The Soviets and Chinese meet to discuss matter after more then 30 years of hostility.

March 26, 1989
The first free elections are held for the new Congress of People’s Deputy’s. Boris Yeltsin along with 1,500 others is elected leaving the Communist party only 500 seats.

April 2, 1989
Gorbachev goes to Cuba to meet Castro for the first time.

April 6, 1989
On his way back from Cuba, Gorbachev visits Britain and hold talks with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.

May 1989
Hungary pulls down its barbed wire fence with Austria. Thousands of East Germans pour into the country. Poland opens talks with Solidarity, which have been banned since 1980.

June 1989
Poland holds free elections.

September 10, 1989
Austria lets the East Germans in. In three days 13,000 have crossed.

October 1989
East Germany closes its border with Czechoslovakia, which is on the way to Hungary.

November 1989
50,000 more East Germans have fled the country and thousands more protest on the city streets. On November 9th East Germany announces that it will give visas for visits to West Germany. When thousands show up the East German guards open the Wall and the people swarm through. Within hours the Wall is dismantled.

November 20,1989
Thousands protest in Czechoslovakia demanding free election. In December free elections are allowed.

December 1, 1989
On his way to meet with President Bush, Gorbachev stops in Rome and meets Pope John Paul II paving the way for religious reform in Russia.

December 20, 1989
Romanian president Ceauscu is murdered after he orders his guards to open fire on a protest.

January 31, 1990
McDonalds “invades” Russia.

February 4, 1990
A protest in Moscow is not broken up for the first time in decades.

May 14, 1990
President Gorbachev denies that the Republics of Estonia and Latvia could breakaway from the USSR.

June 1990
The Soviet government ends censorship of the press.

June 12, 1991
Boris Yeltsin is elected president of the Russian parliament. Gorbachev remains head of the Communist party.

August 18, 1991
While on vacation in the Crimea, Gorbachev is put under house arrest by a gang of eight hardliners who have started a coup. They state that they want Gorbachev to sign over his powers so that reform could begin in the country and leave with the nuclear codes. When Yeltsin hears of this he barricades himself in the Parliament Building. The Gang announces that Gorbachev is ill and has given power to them.

August 19, 1991
The gang of eight has failed to cut any telephone lines in the city or arrested anyone in the opposition. Yeltsin goes out and makes a speech on a tank calling for mass demonstrations. Over a million Soviet citizens respond.

August 20, 1991
The Gang of eight tries to impose a curfew in Moscow, which fails. Crowds raise the Old Russian flag in Red Square. The coup leaders then send in tanks, which kill three people before retreating.

August 21, 1991
The Coup leaders try to flee but are arrested. Gorbachev is freed and flown to Moscow. Yeltsin declares that the Communist party is ended and suspends all party structure and seizes the party papers.

December 21, 1991
The USSR ceases to exist.

December 25, 1991
Gorbachev resigns as President of the country. Yeltsin takes over as President of Russia.

January 2, 1992
Yeltsin frees prices. The Ruble plummets and prices sky rocket.

March 31, 1992
The Russian Federation Treaty is signed by all former Soviet republics except Chechnya and Tarastan.

April 1, 1992
The West sends $42 billion to Russia in aid.

March 23, 1993
The Prime Minister calls for Yeltsin’s impeachment.

September 21, 1993
President Yeltsin dissolves the Parliament and calls for new elections.

October 2-4, 1993
The house of Parliament is stormed by supporters of the prime minister. The Army saves the day when it comes down on the side of Yeltsin.

December 12, 1993
New Elections are held for the parliament.

January 11, 1994
The new government takes effect.

October 11, 1994
The Ruble crashes once again.

December 12, 1994
Russia invades Chechnya

June 16, 1996
Yeltsin and the leader of the communist party, Zyuganov, tie for president.

July 3, 1996
Yeltsin wins a second term.

December 1, 1996
Russian troops leave Chechnya

May 27, 1998
A massive sell off of Russian bonds, securities, and rubles begins.

August 1998
The Russian Financial Crises: The ruble is devalued, market is paralyzed by liquidity shortages, share prices plunge, and Russia defaults on her foreign loans.

May 13, 1999
Yeltsin has impeachment hearings due to firing several different advisers. Two days later the vote fails.

March 26, 2000
Putin becomes new president of the Russian Federation.

Aug 2007
A pair of Russian submersibles descended more than two miles under the ice cap….. and deposited a Russian flag on the seabed at the North Pole. The dive was a symbolic move to enhance the government’s disputed claim to nearly half of the floor of the Arctic Ocean and potential oil or other resources there. (New York Times)

Aug 2007
Presidential aides hinted that Russia could shortly resume the production of Tu-160 and Tu-95 strategic nuclear bombers, now that the aircraft are again flying “combat missions”. The bombers would be used as a “means of strategic deterrence”, a presidential aide, Alexander Burutin, told Interfax. (The Guardian)

Aug 2007
President Vladimir Putin ordered the military to resume regular long-range flights of strategic bombers, as a show of Russia’s resurgent military power.

Sept 2007
Russia’s military yesterday announced that it had successfully tested a lethal new air-delivered bomb, which it described as the world’s most powerful non-nuclear weapon, dubbed the Father of all Bombs.

Dec 2007
Israel denounced on Friday a Russian invitation to the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas) to Moscow for talks, slamming it as a “stab in the back”, local Israeli newspaper Ha`aretz reported. (Angola Press)

October 2007
Vladimir Putin entered the race for December parliamentary elections…..suggested he could become prime minister, setting out a road map for retaining power after his term as president runs out next year.

Nov 2007
The Russian senate voted unanimously to suspend a key Cold War arms limitation treaty. (The Times)

March 2, 2008
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev is elected president of Russia. He is expected to take office May 7, 2008

March 24, 2008
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak heads for Russia on Monday where he is expected to get assurances of Russian assistance to build a nuclear facility. (The Jerusalem Post)

March 24, 2008
Russia plans to more than double its production of conventional weapons by 2015, the country’s First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov said here Monday. (RIA Novosti)

March 24, 2008
Russia backs the move toward Palestinian unity made by Fatah and Hamas, the Russian Foreign Ministry said in a statement on Monday. (RIA Novosti)

March 24, 2008
A top ally of outgoing Russian President Vladimir Putin said the country’s president should serve a longer term, sparking fresh speculation Putin may be set for a return to his Kremlin post. In an interview on Monday, First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov joined other Putin allies who have proposed making the president’s term longer than the current four years.   (Reuters)

August 8, 2008
Russia today sent tanks and troops to South Ossetia after Georgia launched a major military offensive to reclaim the breakaway republic, triggering heavy street fighting that is said to have left hundreds dead or injured. (PTI)

September 13, 2008
Russia begins troop withdrawal from Georgia.

September 18, 200
Russia is in talks to build a space center in Cuba as it forges closer ties with Latin American countries opposed to the U.S. in the wake of Cold War-era tensions sparked by the Georgia conflict, said Anatoly Perminov, the head of the Russian Federal Space Agency, in a statement posted on the Russian Federal Space Agency’s website.

October 2008
Russia is set to begin a month of military exercises near American airspace in Alaska.  Russia claims that the war game, known as Stability 2008, will be the largest they’ve held in 20 years.  Tu-95 Bear bombers will fire cruise missiles at targets in sub-Arctic Russia for the first time since 1984. War ships are also sailing to the Caribbean for joint exercises with Venezuela,  which will come within a few hundred miles of the US coastline.

Dmitry Medvedev, the Russian president, announced a dramatic rearmament program that would see the construction of new missile defense system and the mass production of warships and multi-purpose submarines. Meanwhile, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said the government would allot an extra 80 billion roubles ($3.13 billion) next year to buy new weapons and partly offset Moscow’s losses during a brief war in Georgia.

Nov 5, 2008
Russian President Dimitry Medvedev says they will deploy short-range Iskander missiles in its western enclave of Kaliningrad (between NATO members Lithuania and Poland) in response to plans by the United States to build an anti-missile system in Europe.

Nov 28, 2008
Russia successfully test fired a Bulava intercontinental ballistic missile, which can carry up to 10 nuclear warheads and has a range of 8,000 km, from a submarine positioned in the White Sea.

Dec 5, 2008
President Dmitry Medvedev has signed a deal with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to build four nuclear power plants in India.  As of September, the Nuclear Suppliers Group has lifted a ban that had previously prevented India from accessing the global nuclear market.  Traditionally, Indiaand Russia have been allies, with around 70% of India’s military hardware being Russian-made.

Dec 6, 2008
A Russian warship used the Panama Canal for the first time since World War II, after taking part in joint Russian-Venezuelan maneuvers reflecting Moscow’s growing military presence in the region.

Dec 24, 2008
In a move that will extend Russia’s influence in Eastern Europe, Russian and Serbian leaders signed an energy deal for Russian state gas monopoly Gazprom to aquire a majority stake in Serbia’s oil monopoly (NIS) in return for building a gas pipeline through Serbia.

Dec 25, 2008
Russia’s space agency says it has successfully launched three satellites to enhance its equivalent of the U.S. Global Positioning System. The space agency says three GLONASS-M satellites have been put into orbit by a Proton-M rocket that blasted off from the Baikonur launch pad in Kazakhstan. (AP)

Dec 29, 2008
The ruble fell to a record low against the euro as Russia devalued the currency for the 12th time in seven weeks after the government forecast its first budget deficit in a decade. (bloomberg.com)

Jan 5, 2009
Prime Minister Putin ordered Gazprom to cut gas supplies sent to Europe via Ukraine, due to a long running dispute over alleged theft of a portion of the gas supply by Ukraine.

Jan 7, 2009
All gas flow from Russia’s Gazprom via Ukraine to Europe was halted completely.

Jan 11, 2009
In an attempt to restore gas flow to European, a deal has been signed between Russia and Ukraine along with the European Union in which gas going through Ukraine will be monitored by EU officials.

Mar 28, 2009
Russia reports it will build at least six nuclear-powered submarines with long-range cruise missiles for its navy, to be put into service in 2011.

Mar 29, 2009
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev called for a widening of the reserve currency basket and repeated Russia’s interest in a new global reserve currency, during an interview aired by the BBC. (Reuters)

April 18, 2009
China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan took part in war games in the first such exercise since Kyrgyzstan said in February it would shut the last U.S. air base in Central Asia. (Reuters)

May 13, 2009
Japan and Russia signed a pact on nuclear energy utilization. Under the agreement, Russia, the world’s leader in uranium enrichment, will give Japan access to a stable supply of nuclear energy resources. In return, some of Japan’s companies such as Toshiba Corp. and Hitachi Ltd., will sell technological know-how and/or equipment to Russia.

May 26, 2009
Russia signed a deal to supply nuclear fuel directly to U.S. companies, a move that will leave Russia controlling 20% of the U.S. uranium market and extending its global reach in the nuclear sector.

June 10, 2009
Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said his country would give up nuclear weapons if everyone else that had them did the same.

June 16, 2009
At the SCO summit, and a subsequent Yekaterinburg meeting of the leaders of the emerging BRIC economic tigers – Brazil, Russia, India, and China – Russian President Dimitry Medvedev pressed his case for a “supranational currency” to replace the US dollar in global economic transactions and called for greater employment of local currencies in trade among SCO members.

July 31, 2009
The presidents of seven ex-Soviet states were to meet Friday for a summit of a security grouping led by Russia and moving to be seen an eastern counterweight to NATO…The leaders of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) were to discuss the implementation of a deal signed on June 14 of the group’s first joint rapid reaction force, said the Kremlin in a statement.

Nov 11, 2009
Iranian Defense Minister Ahmad Vahidi is calling for Moscow to follow through on a deal they made in 2007 to sell S-300 surface-to-air missiles to Iran.  Russia has yet to deliver or offer up an explanation for the delay.

2010

Russia Plans to Start Up Iran’s First Nuclear Power Station – in March 2010 to coincide with the Iranian New Year, two sources closely involved with the project told Reuters.

Russia and U.S. Clash over Iran Nuclear Plant – The Telegraph published a news story  on March 18, 2010 that Russia and the United States publicly clashed over Iran’s nuclear program on Thursday after Vladimir Putin announced that Moscow would start up Tehran’s first and only nuclear power plant this summer.

Iran:Russia’s New Strategic Client – On March 22, The Washington Post,published on its “Opinions” page: “Iran is fast becoming one of Russia’s best business clients. While Russia is not entirely comfortable with Iran acquiring advanced nuclear technology and is concerned about combating terrorism, Russia is more concerned about becoming a broker in the Middle East, independent of the West. Strategic economic relations with Iran are quickly becoming a top priority.”

Russia and Syria Sign Arms Deal – (May 2010) causing further concern for Israel and the West.

Iran and Russia Clash  – On May 26, 2010 Reuters reported that Iran and Russia clashed over Kremlin support for draft U.N. sanctions against the Islamic Republic, in one of the worst rows between the two powers since the Cold War.

2011

Iran and Russia “New World Order” – In August of 2011 at a meeting in Moscow, Secretary of Iran’s Supreme National Security Council (SNSC) Saeed Jalili, underscored the significance of the Tehran-Moscow relations toward the establishment of a new global order. He stated that Iran and Russia can establish a new world order based on their common positions on international issues and developments.

2012

Obama’s Disturbing Comments Caught on Tape  – (Reuters) President Barack Obama was caught on camera on March 26, 2012 assuring outgoing Russian President Dmitry Medvedev that he will have “more flexibility” to deal with contentious issues like missile defense after the U.S. presidential election. Obama, during talks in Seoul urged Moscow to give him “space” until after the November ballot.  Medvedev said he would relay the message to incoming Russian president Vladimir Putin. The unusually frank, [close] exchange came as Obama and Medvedev huddled together on the eve of a global nuclear security summit in the South Korean capital, unaware their words were being picked-up by microphones as reporters were led into the room.

Russian Marines Arrive in Syria – ABC News issued a report on March 19, 2012 that  Russian news reports claim that an Iman tanker carrying an “anti-terror squad” from the Russian Marines has arrived in Syria. DEBKAfile, an open-source military intelligence website based in Israel, has reported that two Russian ships have arrived in Syria’s port of Tartus. However, ABC also points out that Russia’s Defense Minister Anatoly Seryukov has denied the reports.

Russia’s Underlying Motives – Russia has actively been involved in supplying arms to Iran and Syria for years, which raises the question, what is the main reason behind such moves? The answer is simply to protect its own interests. If Syria falls then Turkey will have the advantage. For Moscow, this will fundamentally change the balance of power in a region that stretches from central Asia to the Middle East and from the Balkans and Caucasia to the Gulf. With Iran’s position weakening too, Russia, which attempts to present itself as a moderator between Tehran and the West, will also become irrelevant.

Russia Rejects U.S. Call for Pressure on Syria, Iran Russia – Fox News reports that on  Saturday, September 8, Russia without hesitation rejected U.S. calls for increased pressure on Syrian President Bashar Assad to relinquish power. U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton tried to convince Moscow into supporting U.N. action to end the crisis in Syria and she expressed hope that Congress would repeal Cold War-era trade restrictions on Russia. Participating in U.S. sanctions against Iran was also rejected.

Moscow-Istanbul-Rome Initiative (MIR) – To help promote Russia’s interests in the Middle East, the Moscow-Istanbul-Rome Initiative, or MIR Initiative, held a conference in Rome in late May (2012) called “Bridging the New Middle East.” The Muslim Brotherhood leadership and its political arm, the Freedom and Justice Party, participated.

Muslim Brotherhood’s Advice to Russia – The Muslim Brotherhood has stressedthat Russia could best strengthen its position in the Middle East by focusing on relations with the new Egypt. Russia is well positioned for establishing good relations with the new Morsi regime. The Kremlin has successful experience working with Hamas, a movement that is basically the Palestinian version of the Muslim Brotherhood. Muslim Brotherhood leaders have been known to look favorably upon Russia.
No Surprise─Russia Moves on Egypt – While the U.S. administration insanely supports the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Russia is poised to increase its influence within the most strategically located country in the Middle East.Building a trusting relationship with the newly formed ruling elite in Egypt has already begun. For example, the Obama administration is disturbingly and increasingly viewing the Muslim Brotherhood as a healthy and stable political force for Egypt.

Russian Attack Submarine Sailed in Gulf of Mexico Undetected – On August 14, 2012 The Washington Free Beacon published a startling report that a Russian, nuclear-powered attack sub patrolled the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, off the U.S. coast, undetected for a month. The submarine patrol also exposed what U.S. officials said were deficiencies in U.S. anti-submarine warfare capabilities—forces that are facing cuts under the Obama administration’s plan to reduce defense spending by $487 billion over the next 10 years.

Russia Infiltrates Restricted U.S. Airspace – The stealth underwater incursion in the Gulf took place at the same time Russian strategic bombers made incursions into restricted U.S. airspace near Alaska and California in June and July, and highlights a growing military assertiveness by Moscow.

Russia Takes Advantage of Weak Obama Policies – Instead of closer ties, Russia under President Vladimir Putin, an ex-KGB intelligence officer who has said he wants to restore elements of Russia’s Soviet communist past, has adopted growing hardline policies against the United States. The latest submarine incursion in the Gulf further highlights the failure of the Obama administration’s “reset” policy of conciliatory actions designed to develop closer ties with Moscow.

Russia Actively Working against U.S. – Of the submarine activity, Senator John Cornyn (R., Texas), member of the Senate Armed Services Committee, said, “It’s a confounding situation arising from a lack of leadership in our dealings with Moscow. While the president is touting our supposed “reset” in relations with Russia, Vladimir Putin is actively working against American interests, whether it’s in Syria or here in our own backyard.”

2013

Russia’s Influence in the Middle East is Back

With a few days’ worth of surprise diplomacy, Vladimir Putin has revived memories of an era many thought was long gone, when Washington and Moscow jostled for influence while others looked on. Whatever happens with its proposal to relieve Syria of chemical weapons, Russia, at least for now, has re-emerged as a central player in the Middle East. And for good measure, it is seen as a player that does not easily dump allies.

That’s meaningful in a region where America’s sudden abandonment of ousted Egyptian leader Hosni Mubarak two years ago has emerged as a seminal moment, focusing the minds of many an authoritarian on the sometimes ephemeral nature of U.S. support. By contrast, Putin braved outrage by standing by his Syrian ally, claiming publicly there was insufficient evidence that Damascus used chemical weapons on Aug. 21 – and even hinting he would somehow assist Bashar Assad in case of a military strike.

The way events ultimately play out – in impressions as well as with facts on the ground – will also resonate with Iran, whose leaders surely are watching as the clock ticks toward another possible showdown, this one over their nuclear program.

2014

The Crimean Crisis – The crisis began last November (2013) when thousands of protesters took to the streets of Kiev after pro-Russian Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych, who was later ousted and fled the country, refused to sign an agreement that would have integrated Ukraine’s economy closer to the European Union, making it less dependent on Russia.

In February 2014, Russia seized the  Crimean Peninsula from Ukraine without any resistance. In March, Crimea voted in favor of a referendum on joining Russia — one the West considered to be illegal and rigged in Russia’s favor.

Nearly 2,600 people have died in clashes between Ukrainian armed forces and Russian-backed rebels since April, according to a U.N. report.

Russia Deploys Troops, Robots Along Entire “2nd Middle East” Arctic Belt -On the heels of Sweden’s military(following the discovery of a damaged Russian sub),with its access to Arctic resources.As Reuters reports, the Russian defense minister announced today that Russian military units will be deployed along the entire Arctic border from Murmansk to Chukotka in 2014.

Russia warns U.S. Against Strikes on Islamic State in Syria – Russia has warned that U.S. air strikes against militants in Syria would be a ‘gross violation” of international law. A Russian foreign ministry spokesman said any such action, without the backing of the UN, would be “an act of aggression.” (http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29154481)

2015

As of September, Russia  has increased its presence taken a strong stand in Syria, with troops fighter jets, boots on the ground and more. On the day before Russia started its first bombing raid, Mr. Putin met President Obama at the UN and said Russia will not tolerate Israeli strikes inside Syria. The next day, a Russian General showed up at the American Embassy in Baghdad and said, “We launch Syria air strikes in one hour. Stay out of the way.” Russia is trying to guard her allies against Israeli and U.S. interference. All of this is leading to what will ultimately be the prophesied battle of Ezekiel 38 and 39.

2016
Iran-Russia relations have reached an unprecedented peak, fueled by military cooperation in Syria, a shared vision of the global order, and mutual criticism of Western policy in the Middle East. Tehran is a useful ally to Moscow in a highly unstable region, but it is just one thread in Moscow’s patchwork of important relationships that need careful balancing.

Moscow offers Tehran a critical means of protecting its regional security interests. However, Iran’s leadership is divided on how best to hedge bets between Eastern and Western powers to achieve the country’s strategic objectives. Despite their differences, the war in Syria looks set to be the crucible of Moscow-Tehran cooperation for some time to come, given its centrality to the strategic ambitions of both parties.